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Principles for Exercise and Training

Physical fitness and exercise have become, as previously discussed, an increasing concern at nearly all levels of American society. The goal of attaining peak fitness has existed for centuries yet two problems continue to obfuscate understanding. The ability to assess strength and/or to exercise has occupied centuries of thought and effort. For instance, Milo the Greek lifted a calf each day until the baby grew into a bull. Since this particular procedure is not commonly available, humans have attempted to provide more suitable means to determine strength levels and ways to develop and maintain conditioning. Technology for assessing human performance in exercise and fitness evaluations, in both theory and practice, exhibits two problems. First, a lack of clearly defined and commonly accepted standards which results in conflicting claims and approaches to both attaining and maintaining fitness. Second, a lack of accurate tools and techniques for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of a given device touted to diagnose present capabilities for exercising or even to determine which exercises are appropriate to provide "fitness" regardless of age or gender. Vendors and consumers of fitness technology have lacked sound scientific answers to simple questions regarding the appropriateness of exercise protocols.

Reviewing studies conducted to determine the effects of strength training on human skeletal muscle suggests many benefits with appropriate exercise. In general, strength training that uses large muscle groups in high-resistance, low-repetition efforts increases the maximum work output of the muscle group stressed (34). Since resistance training does not change the capacity of the specific types of skeletal muscle fibers to develop different tensions, strength is generally seen to increase with the cross-sectional area of the fiber (35). The human body can exercise by utilizing its own mass, such as running, climbing, sit ups, etc. These and other forms of non-equipment based exercises can be quite useful. In addition, there are various types of exercise equipment which allow selection of a weight or resistance and then the exercise against that machine resistance is performed.

Read more of this article

AssistTools to assist measurement and training of human fitness and exercise levels
FeedbackFeedback Control of Exercise
FutureFuture Development
MethodsResistive Exercising Methods
OptimizationOptimization of Human Performance for All Ages
OptimumThe Optimum Performance Concept
PrinciplesScientific Principles for Quantifying Motion
ReferencesOptimum References
ResistiveResistive Training
TechnologyHigh-Technology Tools
ToolsTools to assess movement of the human body
TrainingPrinciples for Exercise and Training

See also

ArticlesArticles and publications in scientific journals
FunctionalFunctional Capacity Evaluation
HurdlingKinematic analysis of hurdling performances at 2000 United States Olympic trials
LibraryOnline academic library
ListList of studies with Ariel products
NASAWhat is a Resistive Exercise Dynamometer? Read on, and learn how Ariel Dynamics participates in and contributes to America's Space Program.
OptimizationOptimization of Human Performance for All Ages
ProjectsMiscellaneous projects using ADI products
PublicationsGideon B. Ariel, Ph.D. - Publications
QuaternionsVisualizing Orientation using Quaternions

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