A Golf Primer:

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A slice which starts to the left of the target and curves back to the right.

Address The process the player goes through in positioning his body and the club for the stroke. From a rules standpoint it is when the player has taken his stance and grounded the club, or if in a hazard, when he has taken his stance.
Alignment The arrangement of the parts of the body and clubface in relation to the target. A part of aiming.
Angle of Approach The steepness of descent of ascent of the clubhead's forward swing which influences the trajectory and distance a ball will travel.
Approach Shot A stroke made to or onto the putting green, or one made from the fairway in proximity to the green.
Axis A straight line around which a body rotates. (There are several axes in the golf swing. The one most frequently referred to is the spine, around which the upper body rotates.)
Backswing The motion of the club, hands, arms and body away from the ball creating the potential energy to be delivered downward, outward and forward through the ball.
Backspin The backward rotation of the ball on its horizontal axis influenced by the loft of the clubface, the angle of approach and the clubhead velocity. (A ball struck below its center with any club that has loft, even a putter, will have backspin in the airborne portion of its flight. The greater the backspin, the steeper the ball will fly and more quickly it will stop.
Balance Equilibrium in a static position, i.e., at address (see Dynamic Balance).
Bladed Shot One that has a low "line drive" trajectory as a result of having been struck on the lower portion of the clubface on or above the ball's equator. (Skulled shot)
Block To prevent or delay the rotation of the arms, body, wrists or club in the forward swing.
Bobbing Lowering then raising, or raising then lowering the swing center during the course of the swing.
Borrow The amount of compensation in aim taken on the putting green when the player has to deal with a side slope, gravity, grain or the wind's effect on the ball.
Break The curved line a ball travels on the ground because of slope, grain or wind. Also, "break" may refer to the bending at a joint, like a wrist or elbow.
Bump and Run A shot around the green deliberately played into a bank or hill to deaden the speed while still allowing the ball to bound forward. (Bank shot)
Bunker A sandy or grassy hollow forming an obstacle on the course. (Sand trap is a term not in the rule book; bunker is.)
Carry The distance the ball travels in the air.
Casting A premature release of cocked wrists on the forward swing which causes the clubhead to arrive at the ball out of sequence, ahead of the hands and arms. Also known as "hitting from the top." (early release)
Center of Gravity (body) The point in the body (somewhere in the pelvic region) where the upper mass, lower mass, right and left sides all balance.
Centrifugal Force The action in a rotating body tending to move mass away from the center. The force one feels in the downswing that pulls the clubhead outward and downward, extending the arms and encouraging the clubhead to take a circular path.
Center of Rotation The axis around which the body winds and unwinds, i.e., the spine.
Centripetal Force The force that tends to move things toward the center, around which they are turning. Gravitation is an example.
Chicken Wing Folding or collapsing the left arm at the elbow in the forward swing so that it is bent, pointing away from the side of the body. (Generally considered a swing fault; however, it can be used effectively to stop clubfac rotation such as in a bunker shot, pitch shot or putt.) (Block and fold)
Chip and Run A low trajectory shot played to the apron, or green, or around the green, in which the roll is considerably longer than the carry.
Chip Shot A short, low-trajectory shot played to the green or from trouble back into play.
Choke A psychological condition producing acute nervousness that keeps the player from performing up to his normal ability.
Choke Down To grip lower on the club for greater control. (Should replace term choke up)
Chunking A shot in which the clubhead strikes the ground before striking the ball, causing a partial hit, decreasing the distance the ball travels, (stubbing, scuffing, dunching, sclaffing, heavy and fat)
Clearing the Left Side Turning the hips to the left of the target so the arms may follow in sequence.
Cleek The name given to a wooden club (more frequently now a metal wood) with the approximate loft of a #4 wood. In golf's earlier days it was a light narrow-faced iron with little loft; also, a putter with extra loft.
Closed Clubface (at address and impact) One in which the toe of the club is leading the heel, causing the clubface to point to the left of the target line.
Closed Clubface (swing) Whenever the angle formed by the leading edge of the clubface is less than 90 degrees to the tangent of the swing arc.
Closed-Face Grip An exaggerated clockwise rotational positioning of the hands when placed on the grip; i.e., left hand more on top of the shaft, right hand more under. (To replace the term strong grip.)
Closed Stance A positioning of the feet that has the right foot withdrawn from an imaginary line across the toes which is parallel to the target line.
Closed-to-Open A description of the dynamics of the clubhead when the player hoods and closes the clubface in the backswing (pointing more to the ground) then reverses it to open coming through (pointing more to the sky). (Shut to open)
Cocked Wrists A position in which the left wrist has laterally flexed (toward the left thumb side) and the right wrist is dorsally hinged (back of the right wrist toward the top of the forearm).
Cocked Wrists,Bowed A position at the top of the swing in which the wrists have cocked as previously described, but the back of the left hand has moved farther away from the top of the left arm (falmar-flexion), palm toward the underside of the forearm.
Cocked Wrists, Cupped A position at the top of the swing in which the wrists have cocked as previously described, and the back of the left hand has moved closer to the topside of the forearm. (Dorsi-flexion)
Cocked Wrists, In Plane A position in which the wrists have cocked as previously described, and the back of the left wrist is flat in line with the forearm, and the right wrist is parallel to the left wrist.(radial-flexion)

Coefficient of Restitution

The relationship of the clubhead speed at impact to the velocity of the ball after it has been struck. A measure affected by the clubface and ball material.


The circular windup or pivot of the body during the backswing which results in the upper trunk turning farther than the lower creating a feeling of stretch.

Come Over the Top

A move during the forward part of the swing which steepens the plane or arc and throws the clubhead path outside the target line prior to impact. Suggest replacing this term with Outside-to-In swing.


Maintaining the various parts in the appropriate proximity to one anothe before or during the swing so as to produce harmonious movement. The opposite of separation. (See Timing)

Conservation of Angular Momentum (COAM)

A law of physics which allows the player to produce large amounts of kinetic energy. As the body shifts its weight and turns toward the target in the forward swing, the mass (arms and club) is pulled away from the center into an extended position by centrifugal force. By temporarily resisting that pull as well as the temptation to assist the hit by releasing too early, one maintains the angle formed between the club shaft and the left arm and conserves the energy until a more advantagious moment. It has been referred to as "the delayed hit," "the late hit," "connection," "lag loading," "the keystone," or

COAM, but when performed correctly may simply be called "good timing."

Croquet Style

A putting stance in which the player stands facing the hole using the putter in a fashion similar to playing croquet. Originally he stood astride the line but now, but rule must stand beside it. (Side saddle)


A grip style usually employed in putting, where the left hand is placed below the right on the club's grip.

Cuppy Lie

When the ball is resting in a cup-like depression; usually a bare lie in between patches of grass.

Cut Shot

A shot in which the ball is struck with a slightly open clubface while the clubhead path is traveling to the left of the target. This produces clockwise spin, as in a fade, and additional backspin for stopping action on the green.


Dead Wrists

A term used mostly for shots on and around the green where the wrists do not cock back or release through; rather, they stay fixed.


A negative change in the velocity of a moving object. In golf it refers usually to decreasing clubhead speed. It is a major error when occurring prior to impact. (Negative acceleration; quitting)

Delayed Hit

A folf term used to describe the Conservation of Angular Momentum (COAM).


A piece of turf displaced by a golf club. It reflects a correctly descending swing when taken in front of the ball and is the effect of most good iron shots though not a requirement. Also, the hole left in the turf after the grass has been displaced.


An aerodynamic force that resists the forward motion of an object. It influences clubhead speed and ball flight. Also a golf shot played that has additional backspin.


A golf shot which curves slightly in flight from right to left. A small hook. The opposite of a fade.

Duck Hook

An exaggerated hook that curves sharply and rapidly to the left. (Snap hook)

Dynamic Balance

Transferring the focus of weight appropriately during the golf swing while maintaining body control.


Early Hit

When a player prematurely releases angular momentum in the forward swing, causing a reduction of speed at impace. (Hitting from the top, throwaway)

Effective Loft

The actual loft of the clubface when it strikes the ball. Because of sole configuration,m head design, hosel boring and the player's technique, the built-in loft can be varied, thus becoming effective loft.

Explosion shot

A shot made from a lie that is buried in a bunker in which the club digs and displaces a large amount of sand.


Achieving the desired length of the left arm at impact and the right arm at post impact in the swing. (This position can be produced naturally by centrifugal force or willfully by applied leverage.) May also apply to positions at the top of the backswing. (Expansion, extended radius)



A shot which curves slightly in flight from left to right. A small slice. The opposite of a draw.

Fanning the Face

An exaggerated rolling of the clubface into an open position early in the takeaway.

Fat Shot

A shot in which the clubhead strikes the ground before the ball. (NOTE: Other shots denoting error are slicing, hooking, topping, skying, shanking, pushing, pulling, etc. "Fat" is not consistent in form nor is it particularly descriptive. Therefore it is suggested that it be replaced by the word chunked shot or chunking.)


The projected portion on the sole of a club such as on the back part of a sand wedge or putter.

Flat Swing

A swing which employs a less vertical, more horizontal plane than considered normal.


A ball that has reduced backspin and therefore more distance, usually struck from long grass. The probable cause is organic plant matter from the leaves of the grass which reduce friction on the ball and, therefore, spin. A similar result can be obtained when water or another friction-reducing substance is introduced to the clubface.

Flip Wedge

A short, less-than-full wedge shot (similar to a half wedge) usually played to the green.


A ball struck from deep grass which comes out slowly and travels shorter than normal due to a heavy cushioning of the blow from excess grass between the ball and clubface. Opposite of a flier ("Floater" is also a golf ball that will float in water.)

Flop Shot

A loose-wristed pitch in which the club is taken abruptly up on the backswing then dropped lazily and steeply down, sliding the clubhead underneath the ball.

Fluffy Lie

A ball coming to rest on top of the long grass presenting the potential for the clubface to slide markedly under the ball, giving it little impact and reducing distance.


To hit a shot that completely carries over the intended target. Also, the distance one can carry the ball in the air.


The remainder of the swing once the ball has been struck. (In theory there can be no effect on the shot after the ball las left the clubface. In practice, focusing on a sound follow-through may posiitively influence what goes on before.


The action of the lower half of the body (i.e. feet, ankles, knees, legs, hips) when making a golf shot.

Forward Press

A movement usually with the hands and arms or some other part of the body which assists the player in starting the club away from the ball.

Forward Swing

Once the backswing has been completed, the motion of the body, arms, hands and club in the opposite direction through the ball. This term, "forward swing," should replace "downswing" in golf terminology, as it is semantically parallel ("backswing"/forward swing") and directs the player in a more positive action toward the target, not the ground. (downswing)

Fried Egg

A lie in a sand bunker where the landing of the ball has splashed the immediate sand away, leaving the ball resting in the middle of a crater.


Golf Range

A facility where a golfer may hit balls to improve his swing. It it also includes a short-game practice area it could better be called a practice center. Golf range to replace the term "Driving Range."


The direction in which the blades of grass grow and lie on the putting green. (Grain follows water runoff, sun, mowing cuts and prevailing wind direction.)

Grip (equipment)

That portion of the shaft of the club on which the player places his hands; the material which may be of leather, rubber or a synthetic.

Grip (technique/principle)

The placement, positioning, pressure and precision a player employs in applying his hands to the club.

Grip: Interlocking

A method of placing the hands on the club which is distinguished by laying the little finger of the right hand either over the left index finger or around the knuckle of the left index finger.

Grip: Overlapping

A method of placing the hands on the club which is distinguished by laying the little finger of the right hand either over the left index finger or around the knuckle of the left index finger.

Grip: Reverse Overlapping

A popular style of grip used for putting in which all of the right hand remains on the club and the left index finger of the left hand is overlapped across the fingers of the right hand.

Grip: Ten-Finger

A method of placing the hands on the club which is distinguished by the placement of all of the fingers and both thumbs on the club, with the hands abutting but not overlapping or interlocking (baseball grip, all finger)


To develop through practice a sequence of movements, a pattern or path that produces consistent results in the swing. (Also, a linear scoring line on the clubface.)


When referring to the club it is the process of setting the sole on the turf while addressing the ball.

Group Lesson

An instructional session which includes five or more pupils with one or more instructors.


Half Shot

A shot played with less than the normal length backswing and effort, designed to achieve around 50% of the regular distance for the club.

Heeled Shot

One in which the ball is struck on that portion of the clubface which is between the hosel and the center of the face.

High Side

Refers to the portion of the cup which is the highest on a sidehill breaking putt. Sometimes referred to as the "pro side." (The ball has a better chance to drop in from the high side due to gravity and is more frequented by the professional.)


A player using a style of striking the ball which employs considerable thrust or leverage to power the club.


Delofting the club by advancing the grip forward toward the target or reducing loft during the swing but keeping the face square to the target line. (It does not mean closing the face, as is so often misconstrued, although when closing the face, the club may be hooded as well.)


A golf shot which markedly curves in flight from right to left.

Horizontal Axis (Ball)

An imaginary line running through the center of the ball in a horizontal plane. (Striking the ball with the clubface below this point causes it to be airborne. Striking above it will cause the ball to be topped.)


That part of the club which joins the clubhead to the shaft. (neck)



The moment the clubhead, while in contact with the ball, transfers its energy to the ball.


The swing pattern which produces straight, on-target shots -- providing the clubface is square and the ball is centerface hit.


A swing path in which the clubhead approaches the ball from inside the target line and after contact continues forward, crossing that line to the outside before coming around to the finish.



The scientific study of man's movement and the movements of implements or equipment which he might use in exercise, sport or other physical activity.

Kinetic Energy

The form of energy associated with the speed of an object. Its equation is KE = mv2; or kinetic energy =1/2 mass x velocity squared. (It is obvious from the formula that increasing clubhead velocity has more potential for producing distance than increasing the clubhead weight.)



Playing a shot intentionally short of the target. (lay-up) (Also: see Conservation of Angular Momentum)

Late Hit

A misnomer which attempts to describe the Conservation of Angular Momentum or the "delayed hit." If it were truly "late" the ball would go to the right, as the clubface would not be squared.

Lateral Shift

One of the movements of the body in the forward swing with the purpose of transferring the weight from over the right foot to over the left foot. It accompanies and can be the result of body rotation.

Lay Off

Flattening the plane at the top of the backswing, causing the club to point left of the target and the face to be closed. Literally "laying the clubhead down" so it is no longer square or on plane.

Learning Center

A complete golf practice and learning facility. Could include practice areas for full swing, short game, special shots such as uneven lies, putting, physical training, psychological training, equipment testing, video analysis, classroom, learning aids and club fitting.

Lever System

The skeletal system is composed of numerous bones which, in mechanical terms, act as levers. The two primary levers in the golf swing are: 1) the left arm, comprised of the radius and ulna of the lower arm and the humerus in the upper arm, and 2) the club when the left wrist becomes cocked.

Lie(of the Ball)

The position of the ball after it has come to rest.

Lie(of the Club)

The angle the shaft makes with the clubhead as measured from the center of the shaft to a line extending tangentially from the lowest point on the sole.


The path the player intends the ball to follow on the way to the target.

Line of Flight

The direction the ball actually travels.

Lob Shot

A short , high trajectory shot that lands softly with little forward roll.


The degree of pitch angle built into the clubface. Also, to lift a ball into the air with a club.

Long Irons

Those included in the long iron group are #1, #2, #3 and #4.


The shape of the arc the clubhead makes when the backswing and forward swing planes don't match. If the forward swing plane is under (flatter than) the backswing plane it is an inside loop. If the forward swing plane is over (steeper than) the backswing plane it is an outside loop. (Also, caddie slang for a round of golf.

Loosened Grip

Any time during the swing when a player opens his fingers on the grip to cause some loff of control. The most common example would be opening the last three fingers of the left hand at the top of the backswing. (Formerly referred to as a "Piccolo Grip."



The technique elements a player selects and employs in making a golf shot.

Middle Irons

Those included in the middle iron group are #5, #6, and #7.



Putting A style of chipping which uses a low-to-medium trajectory club in a distinctly putting-like style.


Takeaway An early portion of the backswing in which the arms, hands and wrists move away from the ball in nearly the same relation to each other as they were at address. The wrists may cock very slightly but neither fan nor hood the face.

Open Clubface (at address and impact)

One in which the heel of the club is leading the toe, causing the clubface to point to the right of the target line.

Open Clubface (swing)

Whenever the angle formed by the leading edge of the clubface is greater than 90 degrees to the tangent of the swing arc.

Open-Face Grip

An exaggerated counterclockwise rotational positioning of the hands when placed on the club. (Formerly weak grip.)

Open Stance

A positioning of the feet at address that has the left foot withdrawn from an imaginary line running parallel to the intended flight line.


A description of the dynamics of the clubhead when the player rolls the face open during the backswing and rolls it closed during the forward swing. (Open to shut)


When the swing path of the clubhead approaches the ball outside the target line, and then, after contact, crosses that line directly to the inside and around to the finish. The forward swing plane with this pattern is invariably steeper than the backswing plane.



The rate of movement in the swing. (Slso, the speed of the greens.)

Paddle Grip

The grip on a putter that has a flat surface along the top on which the player may rest his thumbs.


The directional arc in which the club is swung when viewed from above. Usually identified in the swing zone just prior to and after impact.

Pendulum Stroke

A free swing from a fixed pivot point. In putting, a pure pendulum stroke could be with the hands and club swinging from the wrist joint while the arms are stabilized. A more common form is to use the arms and shoulders with the pivot point in the center of the chest. . Pinch Shot A short shot around the green struck with a crisp, descending blow. (Most full iron shots when struck a descending blow are pinched to some degree.)

Pistol Grip

The grip portion on the handle of a putter which has extra buiildup at the top so that it fits the hand similarly to a small pistol handle.


A short lofted shot having more than a customary amount of roll after it lands.

Pitch Shot

A high trajectory shot of short length, played with one of the more lofted iron clubs.


The movement of the body or a body part around a fixed axis. Most commonly used to describe the body turn around the spine in the full backswing. (Shoulder turn, windup,coil)

Plumb Bob

A pseudo-scientific method of determining the directions a ball will break on the green. It relies on judgment gained from sighting the slope while using a vertical reference line (the putter) as an aid. It does not take into account the green's speed.

Plugged Lie

A ball imbedded in its pitch mark.


To attempt to hit the ball harder than usual or try harder than normal.

Pre-Shot Routine

A procedure wwhich the player completes after selecting a club but prior to initiating the swing.

Private Lesson

An instructional session which includes one pupil with one or more teachers.


An inward rotation of the hands toward the body's centerline when standing in a palms-facing-forward position. (The term pronation was inaccurately used for many years to describe the rotation of both hands through the impact area. In fact, one hand, the right, was pronating while the left was supinating. Obviously, it is impossible to pronate both hands through the shot.)

Pulled Hook

A hook which starts to the left of the target and curves even farther to the left.

Pulled Shot

A shot that travels on a relatively straight path but to the left of the target.

Pulled Slice

Punch Shot

A low trajectory shot created by striking the ball while the grip end of the club is advanced well ahead of the clubhead so the club's loft is reduced.

Pushed Hook

A hook which starts to the right of the target and curves back to the left.

Pushed Shot

A shot which travels on a relatively straight path but to the right of the target.

Pushed Slice

A slice which starts to the right of the target and curves farther to the right.



A term borrowed from geometry used to describe the distance between the center of the swing arc (the middle of the left shoulder) and the hands on the grip.

Raised Swing Center

Elevating the central area in the body (somewhere between the top of the spine and center of the neck) around which rotation takes place. What the novice frequently refers to as "looking up" and which results in a swing that is too high. (Changing the spine angle)

Rap Top

Put the ball with a firm stroke.

Reading the Green

The process of judging the correct path and pace to hole a putt. (This decision must consider all factors which might influence the ball on the way to the target, i.e., length of grass, type of grass, grain, firmness of the ground, slope dryness or wetness, wind, the ball, the club, the technique.)


To play from an undesirable ball location to one which is more advantagious.


Allowing or causing the body and club in the forward swing to return the clubface to square and to free the potential power created in the backswing.

Reverse Weight Shift

During the backswing, moving either the upper or lower part of the body in a direction opposite from that which is mechanically sound, i.e., forward (to the left) of the body's centerline rather than behind it (to the right).


A harmonious movement in the swing with a regular and repeating pattern.



The attempt to recover from erratic play and produce effective results. (Also a form of competitive team golf play.

Semi-Private Lesson

An instructional session which includes two to four pupils with one or more insturctors.


When the body, arms and legs get out of sync or position and lose the desired relationship to their contiguous parts. (Also, may be the ball leaving the clubface.)


The mechanical procedure other than grip and aim prior to initiating a stroke. It includes positioning the body and clubface, alignment in relation to the ball and establishing the body's overall attitutude or posture.


To strike the ball on the hosel of the club. Usually this causes the shot to travel sharply to the right, but it could go straight or to the left as well, (socketing, hoseling)

Shape of Shot

The ball's actual line of travel, i.e.,left to right, right to left or straight.

Short game

That part of golf played near the green to include all types of shots that may be used to get the ball holed in as few strokes as possible, i.e., bunker shots, putting chipping, pitching and all special variations of these.

Short irons

Clubs included in the short iron group are the #8, #9, and pitching wedge. Consider the sand wedge as a specialty club.


To hit under the ball on the upper part of the clubface, sending the ball high and a short distance.


A ball which curves markedly from left to right,

Smothered Hook

A hook that drives quickly to the ground,usually directly to the left, but may possibly start to the right. Caused byan exaggerated closed clubface.


The bottom of the clubhead. (Also, the process of setting that portion of the club on the ground.

Splash Shot

A shot played from a good lie in a sand bunker in which the club bounces or splashes through the sand, cutting it from beneath the ball.


The earlier name for a lofted fairway wood, presently the #3 wood.


To mark the position of a ball on the green before lifting it by placing a coin or small object at the back side of the ball.


Using an intermediate target on the line to the cupo, such as a discoloration of grass or ball mark, as aiming point for the putt.


A term with several uses in golf. May refer to the clubface when it is positioned at right angles to the target line; to the stance when a line drawn across the heels is parallel to the target line; to the shoulders, hips and knees in aiming when they are also parallel to the target line; to center-faced contact with the ball when it is struck. Also, when the club is at 90 degrees to the tangent of the arc, anywhere on that arc.


The position of the feet when the player addresses the ball.


An exaggerated attempt to control the shot which results in losing the desired distance and/or direction.


An iron club with little or no loft on the face, or a wood without normal budge and roll.

Strong Grip

The currently used expression to describe the exaggerated rotation of the hands in a clockwise (toward the right shoulder) position when placed on the club. (Suggest this be changed to Closed-Face Grip: This is more descriptive, does not imply tight pressure and is parallel in its application to other golf terms such as "closed stance.")


An outward ratation of the hands (thumbs turning out) away from the body's centerline when standing in a palms-facing-the body position. In the golf swing it is the right-hand rotation motion on the backswing and the left's on the forward swing.

Suspension Radius

The distance when measured from a point at the base of the neck to the ball that is used as a reference to determine the spoine angle inclination and whether or not the swing center has moved.


A general description of exaggerated lateral body movement in the backing or forward swing.

Sweet Spot

That point on the clubface where the club does not torque when struck with a sharp object. (To check, hold the club loosely at the top of the grip between two fingers. Let gravity hang it vertically. Then poke the face at various points with the leading edge of a coin until you find the spot which gives no feeling of torque in your fingers. That is the "sweet spot".) (percussion point)

Swing Arc

The entire path the clubhead follows in its complete motion away from and toward the target. It has the dimensions of both length and width.

Swing Center

A point around which the roughly circular motion of the swinging of the arms and upper trunk are made. It is located between the base of the neck and top of the spine. (Not necessarily fixed, it remains generally constant in the small swings, with some movement allowed as the swing gets longer. Nevertheless, if the movement of the swing center is too great, the overall timing of the swing becomes more difficult.) (Hub)


A player using a style of striking the ball which primarily employs body rotation, light grip pressure and good rhythm to maximize centrifugal force.

Swing Place

An imaginary, flat, thin surface which is used to describe the path and angle on which the club is swung. Plane has inclination or tilt, i.e., flat, medium, upright, as well as direction--inside, down the line, or outside.



The early portion of the backswing.

Target Line

An imaginary straight line drawn from behind and through the ball towaard the intended target. (Intended line of flight or Aim-line.)


The rate of the swing--fast, slow, etc. (Most swings take around two seconds from takeaway to finish.)

Texas Wedge

A putter used from an unusually long distance off the green. The term developed on Texas courses where the ground was so hard one couldn't effectively pitch the ball with a wedge.

Three-Quarter Shot

A shot played with less than the normal length backswing or effort, designed to achieve around 75% of the regular distance for that club.


The sequencing of the body parts and club to achieve the most effective motion. (Proper sequential motion, connection)

Toed Shot

Any shot that is struck away from the club's center nearer the toe end of the club.

Topped Shot

A rolling or low bounding shot caused by striking the ball above its equator or horizontal axis.


A delicate sense of feel, usually alluded to when referring to skill around the greens.


The path a ball takes in the air. In golf it refers primarily to the height of a shot.


The change of direction in the swing from back to forward, from away to toward.



To allow or cause the wrists to release or straighten in the forward swing.


A swing plane which is steeper than normal; an address position which is more erect than normal; or the lie of the club in which the shaft is inserted more vertically than in a club with a normal lie.



A quantity or measure related to force that has both magnitude and direction. An important factor in determining the distance and direction a ball travels.


Forming a mental picture of the correct swing or desired result prior to swinging the club. (Mental imagery, visual imagery)



A movement or series of movements made prior to the swing with the purpose of staying relaxed, establishing comfort or setting pace. In its most common form it consists of moving the clubhead over or in back of the ball in small wrist-cocking motions of the hands with accompanying movements of the arms or other parts of the body.

Weak Grip

The currently used expression to describe an exaggerated counterclockwise (toward the left shoulder) rotational positioning of the hands when placed on the club. (Change to Open-Face Grip. This is more descriptive, does not imply an over-relaxed hold, and, in its application, is parallel to other golf terms such as "open stance."


A complete miss when attempting to strike the ball. (air shot)



A psychological condition affecting the nerves which causes the player to lose control of his hands and the club. Usually associated with putting, it can also intrude upon other parts of the short game such as chipping, pitching or bunker play. (Twitches)