12.1 PRINTING PROCESS Once an analysis sequence has been digitized, transformed and smoothed, the Printing Module allows the three-dimensional image data, displacements, velocities, accelerations, segment energy values and segment momentum values, to be printed in tabular format, as an aid to analysis.
Typically, the Printing Module is used in conjunction with the Graphing and Viewing Modules to obtain a complete presentation of image motion data for biomechanical analysis. This chapter describes how the standard and optional features of the printing module are used.
Creating a report for printing is a two step process. First, the type of report(s) must be produced and the items that are to be included in the report. Second, the report is then printed. Alternately, reports may be displayed on the monitor, saved to data files, or transferred to other information processing programs.
12.2 REPORT SELECTION TABLE When the Printing Module is selected from theMain APAS Menu the first screen lists the sequence names available in the current directory. Once a sequence has been selected, the stick figure image of that sequence is displayed on the color monitor and at the same time the Printing Main Menu is displayed on the monochrome monitor.
Displayed in the upper half of the monochrome screen is the Report Selection Table. The table contains one line for each major type of report that is to be produced for printing. These are listed under the Report Type column.
The #J/S column shows the number of body joints or segments that have been selected for each report type. A separate selection list is maintained for each type of report. "None" indicates that no selections have been made for that report and this report will not be produced.
Each major report type consists of two sections: a standard report and a summary report. The standard reports lists all motion parameters together for a single joint or segment while the summary report lists all joints or segments together for a single motion parameter. When the columns for one of these sections are all blank, that section of the report will not be produced. When one or more of these columns contains a coordinate or viewing axis description, that section of the report will be produced for those specific component values and for the individual joints or segments that have been selected. In this manner, printing can be limited to those data values necessary for analysis.
12.3 REPORT TYPE Selection of reports to be printed begins by choosing the Report-type option from the Printing Main Menu. One or more report types must be selected, as well as, specific joint or segment information to be included in the reports, before actually printing of any data. Therefore this is the first option that must be selected in the Printing Module.
The Axis name indicators in the Report Selection Table show which reports have been selected for which coordinate or viewing axis direction. The indicators are all initially blank. In order to set some of them to axis values, and thereby select items to print, a report type must first be selected and then one or more body joints or segments, and finally one or more coordinate or viewing axis directions. These functions will appear on subsequent menus after selection of Report-type.
Selection of items for each report type is performed independently and the procedure is repeated for each report. The report types are listed in the Report-Type Menu.
12.3.1 Report Specification Once a report type has been selected, the number of joints and the type of report, standard and/or summary, must be specified. After report type is selected, the body segments to be included in the report must be chosen, then axis for standard and/or summary reports is selected. The Report Specifications Menu displays the Choose_joints, Report and Summary options.
22.214.171.124 Choose-joints The Choose_joints option is selected in order to specify which body joints will be include in the report and/or summary. A menu of body joints will appear on the screen to allow body joint selection for the reports. Joints are selected by highlighting the joint name and pressing ENTER. As each joint or segment name is selected it will be marked on the stick figure and the name will be listed on the screen next to the stick figure. Markings are dependant upon which type of report is selected. Joints/segments are selected until the F10-Done key is pressed. To remove a single joint/segment, the name may be selected a second time. This toggles the name between being selected and unselected. The F1-select/clear all key may be used to clear all joints/segments from the screen.
When Segment angular and Joint angular report types are chosen the angle of measurement is marked with an arc on the stick figure display. As an option, this angle may be complemented, a 360ï¿½ minus the angle. For the joint type, this gives the choice between interior and exterior joint angles and for the segments type, this gives a choice between segment angles measured from opposite segment endpoints. The graphic display should be checked for the proper angle before the next joint/segment is selected.
When join/segment selection is complete, the Report Selection Table will display the total number of joints/segments for the report in the #J/S column.
126.96.36.199 Report The Report Selection Menu is selected to specify the coordinate axes to be included in for individual reports. If no report axes are selected a standard report will not be produced. "All" is used to select all of the coordinate axes (X, Y, Z and magnitude) for the selected report. "None" clears all coordinate axis selections for the report. This will result in no report being produced. Axis selections cannot be individually cleared. Selections appear in the Report Selection Table under the Report heading. For energy and momentum reports, the Report option selects the type of energy or momentum to report rather than a component axis.
188.8.131.52 Summary The Summary Selection Menu allows the selection of individual coordinate or viewing axes. For energy and momentum reports this option selects the type of energy or momentum to report. Each axis may be selected individually in addition to All or None. The selections will appear in the Report Selection Table under the Summary heading. A separate tabular report is produced for each motion parameter and each axis when the summary option is used.
12.3.2 Completed Report The completed report will appear as a highlighted line in the Report Selection Table. If another report is desired, the process is simply repeated.
12.4 PRINT The Print Options Menu is used to produce printed copies once all reports have been chosen. This option can also be used to view reports on the screen or save them to data files or other data processing programs.
12.4.1 Console The Console option displays the currently selected reports on the monitor. The first screen will display the sequence, the date the sequence was filmed and the date that it is printed. Reports are then shown one screen at a time, starting with the title page. Column headings are maintained at the top of the display to identify each motion parameter.
Pageup and Pagedown keys may be used to advance or reverse a screen at a time to review the report. Alternately the up and down cursor keys may be used to advanced or reversed a line at a time. The F10-Skip key may be pressed to select the Skip Menu , which allows portions or all of the reports to be skipped.
12.4.2 Printer The Printer option sends the desired reports to the system printer. When this option is selected an additional menu will supply the opportunity to make sure the printer is ready and the paper is properly aligned. A "Ready" response begins actual printing. An "Abort" response will cancel and return to the Print Options Menu.
Printing may be suspended by pressing any key on the keyboard. If printing is suspended, the Skip Menu (Figure 12-8) is presented. Part or all of the selected reports may be skipped or printing may be resumed at the point it was suspended. When printing is complete, the screen will return to the Print Options Menu.
12.4 .3 File The File option is selected to save the output on disk rather than printing. This option might be used to save files for later printing (printing large batch files after normal business hours), or if it is not known if a printout is needed. When this option is selected the program will ask for a file name in which to save the printout. Any name, up to eight characters in length with an optional extension of up to three characters, may be entered. If a file by that name already exists a warning screen will be displayed asking to replace the old file with the new one, or abort, retaining the old file and allowing a new name to be chosen.
It is recommended that names and extensions be used that will help in identifying the subject matter for the printout. For example, if the printout is from a sequence named RUNNER then a logical print file name might be RUNNER.PRT.
12.4.4 DIF The Data Interchange Format (DIF) is used to transfer data to other systems, such as Lotus1-2-3TM and other popular software packages. When this option is selected the program will ask for a DIF file "root" name. This is a file name of up to six characters long with NO extension. The program will automatically add the last two characters of the file name (Table 12-1), along with the extension .DIF for each of the files it creates. One DIF file will be created for each type of report in the printout. Since there are four report types and four report summary types, up to eight DIF files could be created if all eight report types had been selected.
12.5 NEW_SEQUENCE The New_sequence option clears any current report selections and allows another analysis sequence to be chosen for printing. A menu of sequence names is presented and a name is selected in the same manner as for the initial sequence selection (Section 12.2). Report specification and printing may then be performed through the Report_type option (Section 12.3).
12.6 OPTIONS Additional printing options may be selected through the Options command on the Printing Main Menu. The Options Menu allows viewing axis, stick figure, and color changes along with adding a header to the report.
12.6.1 R.H.axes The R.H.axes option is used to reset the reference axes for angular measurements reported by the Printing Module. The current right horizontal axis definitions appear at the top of the screen. Angles are measured in a plane of projection as viewed from one of the three major coordinate axes, X, Y and Z. The right horizontal axis is used as the reference axis for angular displacement measurements for segment angular and joint directional reports. For other report types, as well as, for angular velocities and accelerations, the right horizontal axis selection has no effect on the result values. Axis directions are determined by the standard "right-hand rule" which states that if the position Z axis points out of the display screen, then the positive X axis points right and the positive Y axis points up.
If angular data values for any sequence are better represented using different right horizontal axis selections, these may be changed using the R.H.axes option.
12.5.3 Stick-Figure The Stick_figure option allows the orientation or frame number of the stick figure on the graphic display to be changed. The figure is normally displayed from the Z viewing axis for the middle frame in the sequence. Optionally the X or Y viewing axes and any other frame in the sequence may be selected. Different orientations and frames may be helpful in viewing certain portions of the activity being studied and thereby aid in the selection of the proper segment and joint values for printing. This is especially true when angular quantities are being reported, as the angle may not be clearly visible from some orientations.
184.108.40.206 Frame Frame is selected to change the frame number used for the stick figure display. By default the middle frame of the sequence is used, however the display may be reset by typing the frame number desired then pressing ENTER. The F1-Forward and F2-reverse keys may be used to step through the sequence a frame at a time, rather than entering a frame number. The F10-Done key is pressed once the desired frame is displayed.
220.127.116.11 View View is selected to change the viewing axis for the stick figure display. By default the Z viewing axis is used, however for some activities the stick figure can be more easily seen from another axis. When this option is selected a menu of viewing axes will be presented so another axis may be chosen for viewing. The display will be re-drawn with the new viewing direction and then return to the stick figure options menu.
12.5.4 Color The Color option is used to change the color on one or more of the items on the graphic display.